1Or, oracle1:2 I have loved you, saith Jehovah. Yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? 3Was not Esau Jacob’s brother? saith Jehovah: yet I loved Jacob;
2Or, my messenger. [Not necessarily his name.]
3Or, Is not Esau ... yet I have loved Jacob;1:3 but Esau I 4hated, and made his mountains a desolation, and gave his heritage to the jackals of the wilderness.
4Soncino commentary suggests, loved less, (Ge 29:31; Dt 21:15).1:4 5Whereas Edom saith, We are 6beaten down, but we will return and build the waste places; thus saith Jehovah of hosts, They shall build, but I will throw down; and men shall call them The border of wickedness, and The people against whom Jehovah hath indignation forever.
5Or, Though Edom say,1:5 And your eyes shall see, and ye shall say, Jehovah 7be magnified 8beyond the border of Israel.
6Or, as otherwise read, impoverished,
7Or, is great1:6 A son honoreth his father, and a servant his master: if then I am a father, where is mine honor? and if I am a master, where is my fear? saith Jehovah of hosts unto you, O priests, that despise my name. And ye say, Wherein have we despised thy name?
1:7 Ye offer polluted bread upon mine altar. And ye say, Wherein have we polluted thee? In that ye say, The table of Jehovah is contemptible.
1:8 And when ye offer the blind for sacrifice, it is no evil! and when ye offer the lame and sick, it is no evil! Present it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee? or will he accept thy person? saith Jehovah of hosts.
1:9 And now, I pray you, entreat the favor of God, that he may be gracious unto us: this hath been 9by your means: will he 10accept any of your persons? saith Jehovah of hosts.
9Hb. from your hand:1:10 Oh that there were one among you that would shut the double gates, that ye might not kindle fire on mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, saith Jehovah of hosts, neither will I accept an offering at your hand.
10Or, accept any because of you? saith Jehovah
1:11 For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name 11shall be great among the Gentiles: and in every place 12incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the Gentiles, saith Jehovah of hosts.
11Or, is (three times).1:12 But ye profane 13me, in that ye say, The table of Jehovah is polluted, and the fruit thereof, even its food, is contemptible.
12Or, incense and a pure oblation are offered:
13Sopherim changed to it,1:13 Ye say also, Behold, what a weariness is it! and ye have snuffed at 14me, saith Jehovah of hosts; and ye have brought that which was taken by violence, and the lame and the sick; thus ye bring the offering: should I accept this at your hand? saith Jehovah.
14So several mss. and Jewish tradition. Sopherim changed to it,1:14 But cursed be the deceiver, who hath in his flock a male, and 15voweth, and sacrificeth unto 16Jehovah a blemished thing; for I am a great King, saith Jehovah of hosts, and my name is awesome among the Gentiles.
15So the versions. Massoretic reads a faulty female,[Mal 2]
16Sopherim changed to the Lord
2:1 And now, O ye priests, this commandment is for you.
2:2 If ye will not hear, and if ye will not lay it to heart, to give glory unto my name, saith Jehovah of hosts, then will I send the curse upon you, and I will curse your blessings! yes, I have cursed them already, because ye do not lay it to heart.
2:3 Behold, I will rebuke 17your seed, and will spread dung upon your faces, even the dung of your feasts; and ye shall be taken away 18with it.
17Sept., Vg., GkAq read, your arm,2:4 And ye shall know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that my covenant may be with Levi, saith Jehovah of hosts.
2:5 My covenant was with him of life and peace; and I gave 19them to him that he might fear; and he feared me, and stood in awe of my name.
19Sept., Vg. read him fear, and he feared me,2:6 The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not found in his lips: he walked with me in peace and uprightness, and turned many away from iniquity.
2:7 For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth; for he is the messenger of Jehovah of hosts.
2:8 But ye are turned aside out of the way; ye have caused many to stumble in the law; ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi, saith Jehovah of hosts.
2:9 Therefore have I also made you contemptible and base before all the 20people, according as ye have not kept my ways, but have had respect of persons in the law.
20Several mss., Sept., Vg. read peoples,2:10 Have we not all one father? hath not one God created us? why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, profaning the covenant of our fathers?
2:11 Judah hath dealt treacherously, and an abomination is committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; for Judah hath profaned the 21holiness of Jehovah which he loveth, and hath married the daughter of a foreign god.
21Or, Holy or possibly, sanctuary2:12 Jehovah will cut off, to the man that doeth this, him that waketh and him that answereth, out of the tents of Jacob, and him that offereth an offering unto Jehovah of hosts.
2:13 And this 22again ye do: ye cover the altar of Jehovah with tears, with weeping, and with sighing, 23insomuch that he regardeth not the offering any more, neither receiveth it with good will at your hand.
22Or, a second time ye do:2:14 Yet ye say, Wherefore? Because Jehovah hath been witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, though she is thy companion, and the wife of thy covenant.
23So Massoretic, Aram., Vg. 4QXIIa reads because of troubles, doth he still regard [the offering and receive it with good will at] etc. Sept. reads because of troubles; is it worthy to regard the offering and receive it with good will at etc.
2:15 24And did he not make one, although he had the residue of the Spirit? And wherefore one? He sought a seed of God. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.
24Or, And not one hath done so who had a residue of the spirit. Or what? is there one that seeketh a godly seed?2:16 For 25I hate putting away, saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, and him that 26covereth his garment with violence, saith Jehovah of hosts: therefore take heed to your spirit, that ye deal not treacherously.
25Hb. he hateth putting away (or, divorce), 4QXIIa Sept. (Vg.) read For if thou hate and put away,2:17 Ye have wearied Jehovah with your words. Yet ye say, Wherein have we wearied him? In that ye say, Every one that doeth evil is good in the sight of Jehovah, and he delighteth in them; or where is the God of justice?
26Pertaining to marriage (cf. Ruth 3:8-9)
3:1 Behold, I send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to his temple; 27and the 28messenger of the covenant, whom ye desire, behold, he cometh, saith Jehovah of hosts.
27Or, even3:2 But who can abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner’s fire, and like fullers’ soap:
3:3 and he will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and he will purify the sons of Levi, and refine them as gold and silver; and they shall offer unto Jehovah offerings in righteousness.
3:4 Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah, as in the days of old, and as in ancient years.
3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against the false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the sojourner from his right, and fear not me, saith Jehovah of hosts.
3:6 For I Jehovah, change not; therefore ye, O sons of Jacob, are not consumed.
3:7 From the days of your fathers ye have turned aside from mine ordinances, and have not kept them. Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith Jehovah of hosts. But ye say, Wherein shall we return?
3:8 Will a man rob God? yet ye rob me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and heave-offerings.
3:9 29Ye have cursed me with the curse; for ye rob me, even this whole nation.
29Sopherim changed to Ye are cursed with the curse; So Massoretic (Aram.) (Vg.). 4QXIIa reads Ye are looking on appearances; Sept. reads And ye certainly turn your attention away;3:10 Bring ye the whole tithe into the store-house, that there may be food in my house, and prove me now herewith, saith Jehovah of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it.
3:11 And I will rebuke the devourer for your sakes, and he shall not destroy the fruits of your ground; neither shall your vine cast its fruit before the time in the field, saith Jehovah of hosts.
3:12 And all nations shall call you happy; for ye shall be a delightsome land, saith Jehovah of hosts.
3:13 Your words have been stout against me, saith Jehovah. Yet ye say, What have we spoken against thee?
3:14 Ye have said, It is vain to serve God; and what profit is it that we have kept his charge, and that we have walked 30mournfully before Jehovah of hosts?
30Or, in mourning apparel before Jehovah3:15 and now we call the proud happy; yes, they that work wickedness are built up; yes, they tempt God, and escape.
3:16 Then they that feared Jehovah spake one with another; and Jehovah hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before him, for them that feared Jehovah, and that thought upon his name.
3:17 And they shall be mine, saith Jehovah of hosts, even mine own possession, in the day that I 31make; and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth him.
31Or, do this; Similarly in ch. 4:3.3:18 Then shall ye return and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not.
4:1 For, behold, the day cometh, it burneth as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith Jehovah of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.
4:2 But unto you that fear my name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its 32wings; and ye shall go forth, and gambol as calves of the stall.
32Or, beams;4:3 And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I make, saith Jehovah of hosts.
4:4 Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordinances.
4:5 Behold, I will send you 33Elijah the prophet before the great and awesome day of Jehovah come.
33Soncino commentary says, Referred to in verse [3:]1 as the messenger who will prepare the way for the coming of the Lord. ‘Far more than the prophet of zeal and fire of the Biblical narrative, he is to later generations the helper and healer, the reconciler and peace-bringer, the herald of the days of the Messiah’ (Hertz, Pentateuch, Soncino edn., p. 970).4:6 34And he shall turn the heart of the fathers 35to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers; lest I come and smite the 36earth with a 37curse.
35Or, with (twice)
36Or, land Hb. eretz.
37Or, ban. or, devoting to destruction.