[Gal 1]
1:1 Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through 1man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead),

1Or, a man, (also in vs. 12)
1:2 and all the brethren that are with me, unto the churches of Galatia:
1:3 Grace to you and peace 2from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ,
2So ℵA 33 81 P. But p46,51vidB 1739 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., copsa,(bo) arm vg read from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ,
1:4 who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us out of this present evil age, according to the will of 3our God and Father:
3Or, God and our Father: or, God, even our Father:
1:5 to whom be the glory 4for ever and ever. Amen.
4Gk. unto the ages of the ages.
1:6 I marvel that ye are so quickly removing from him that called you in the grace of Christ unto a different 5gospel;
5Gk. good tidings; (and so everywhere else) See marginal note on Mt 4:23.
1:7 6which is not another gospel, only there are some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.
6Or, which is nothing else save that there...
1:8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, should 7preach unto you any gospel 8other than that which we preached unto you, let him be 9anathema.
7See marginal note on Mt 11:5. (and so elsewhere)
8Or, contrary to that (and in vs. 9)
9Or, a curse. Also in vs. 9. Equivalent to Hb. hērem, a thing devoted to destruction; e.g., see Josh 6:18, 7:11-13 (Sept. anathema).
1:9 As we have said before, so say I now again, If any man preacheth unto you any gospel other than that which ye received, let him be anathema.
1:10 For am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God? or am I striving to please men? if I were still pleasing men, I should not be a 10servant of Christ.
10Gk. bondservant
1:11 11For I make known to you, brethren, as touching the gospel which was preached by me, that it is not after man.
11SoaB 33 D* copsa vg. But p46ℵ*A 1739 81 and most lesser Gk. mss., copbo read But
1:12 For neither did I receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came to me through revelation of Jesus Christ.
1:13 For ye have heard of my manner of life in time past in the Jews’ religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and made havoc of it:
1:14 and I advanced in the Jews’ religion beyond many of mine own age 12among my countrymen, being more exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
12Gk. in my race, Compare 2Co 11:26.
1:15 But when it was the good pleasure 13of God, who separated me, even from my mother’s womb, and called me through his grace,
13p46B G 0150 and few others, vg read of him who
1:16 to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles; straightway I conferred not with flesh and blood:
1:17 neither went I up to Jerusalem to them that were apostles before me: but I went away into Arabia; and again I returned unto Damascus.
1:18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to 14visit Cephas, and tarried with him fifteen days.
14Or, become acquainted with
1:19 But other of the apostles saw I none, 15save 16James the Lord’s brother.
15Or, but only
16Or, Jacob (and so everywhere else)
1:20 Now touching the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not.
1:21 Then I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia.
1:22 And I was still unknown by face unto the churches of Judea which were in Christ:
1:23 but they only heard say, He that once persecuted us now preacheth the faith of which he once made havoc;
1:24 and they glorified God in me.
[Gal 2]
2:1 Then after a space of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me.
2:2 And I went up by revelation; and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles but privately before them who were of repute, lest by any means I should be running, or had run, in vain.
2:3 But not even Titus who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:
2:4 17and that because of false brethren privily brought in, who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage:
17Or, but it was because of
2:5 to whom we gave place in the way of subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.
2:6 But from those who were reputed to be somewhat (18whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me: God accepteth not man’s person) – they, I say, who were of repute imparted nothing to me:
18Or, what they once were,
2:7 but contrariwise, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel of the uncircumcision, even as Peter with the gospel of the circumcision
2:8 (for he that wrought for Peter unto an apostleship of the circumcision wrought for me also unto the Gentiles);
2:9 and when they perceived the grace that was given unto me, James and Cephas and John, they who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship, that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the circumcision;
2:10 only they would that we should remember the poor; which very thing I was also zealous to do.
2:11 But when Cephas came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face, because he stood condemned.
2:12 For before that certain came from James, he ate with the Gentiles; but when 19they came, he drew back and separated himself, fearing them that were of the circumcision.
19So CA 1739 81 and the majority of lesser mss., copsa,bo arm vg. p46ℵB 33 D* read he came
2:13 And the rest of the Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that even Barnabas was carried away with their dissimulation.
2:14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Cephas before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest as do the Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, how compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews?
2:15 We being Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles,
2:16 yet knowing that a man is not 20justified by the works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed on Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law: because by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.
20Or, accounted righteous by (and so elsewhere) Compare Ro 2:13.
2:17 But if, while we sought to be justified in Christ, we ourselves also were found sinners, is Christ a minister of sin? 21Be it not so.
21Or, May it not come to be! (and so everywhere)
2:18 For if I build up again those things which I destroyed, I prove myself a transgressor.
2:19 For I through the law died unto the law, that I might live unto God.
2:20 I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I that live, but Christ liveth in me: and that life which I now live in the flesh I live in faith, the faith which is in 22the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself up for me.
22So ℵCA 1739 33 81 and most mss. and versions. p46B D* read God and Christ,
2:21 I do not make void the grace of God: for if righteousness be through the law, then Christ died for nought.
[Gal 3]
3:1 O foolish Galatians, who did bewitch you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified?
3:2 This only would I learn from you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the 23hearing of faith?
23Or, message of faith? And so in vs. 5.
3:3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, 24are ye now perfected in the flesh?
24Or, do ye now make an end in the flesh?
3:4 Did ye suffer so many things in vain? if it be indeed in vain.
3:5 He therefore that supplieth to you the Spirit, and worketh 25miracles 26among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
25Gk. powers
26Or, in
3:6 Even as Abraham 27believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness.
27Ge 15:6.
3:7 28Know therefore that they that are of faith, the same are sons of Abraham.
28Or, Ye perceive
3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God 29would justify the 30Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand unto Abraham, saying, 31In thee shall all the nations be blessed.
29Gk. justifieth
30Gk. nations
31Ge 12:3 merged with Ge 22:18.
3:9 So then they that are of faith are blessed with the faithful Abraham.
3:10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under a curse: for it is written, 32Cursed is every one who continueth not in all things that are written in the book of the law, to do them.
32Dt 27:26.
3:11 Now that no man is justified 33by the law before God, is evident: for, 34The righteous shall live by faith;
33Gk. in
34Hab 2:4.
3:12 and the law is not of faith; but, 35He that doeth them shall live in them.
35Lv 18:5.
3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us; for it is written, 36Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
36Dt 21:23. Or more poetically, Cursed be he that hangeth on a tree.
3:14 that upon the Gentiles might come the blessing of Abraham in Christ Jesus; that we might receive the 37promise of the Spirit through faith.
37p46 D*G almost alone read blessing
3:15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men: Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet when it hath been confirmed, no one maketh it void, or addeth thereto.
3:16 Now to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, 38And to thy seed, which is Christ.
38Ge 13:15; 17:8.
3:17 Now this I say: A covenant confirmed beforehand by 39God, the law covenant, which came four hundred and thirty years after, doth not disannul, so as to make the promise covenant of none effect.
39So p46ℵBCA 1739 33 81 copsa,bo vg. I and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., read God in Christ,
3:18 For if the inheritance be of the law covenant, it is no more of the promise covenant: but God hath granted it to Abraham by promise.
3:19 40Why then was the law covenant? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise hath been made; and it was ordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
40Or, What then is the law covenant?
3:20 Now the mediator is not a mediator of one; but God is one.
3:21 Is the law covenant then against the promises 41of God? Be it not so: for if there had been a law covenant given which could make alive, truly righteousness would have been of the law covenant.
41p46B virtually alone omit of God
3:22 But the scripture shut up all men under sin, that the promise covenant by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
3:23 But before faith came, we were kept in ward under the law covenant, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed.
3:24 So that the law covenant is become our 42guardian to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
42Lit. child guide That is, slave who went with a boy from home to school and back again (so Liddell and Scott; see also Thayer). Modern near-equivalent, school-bus driver. By extension, may be, tutor, instructor. (Also in vs. 25)
3:25 But now that faith is come, we are no longer under a guardian.
3:26 For ye are all sons of God, through faith, in Christ Jesus.
3:27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ did put on Christ.
3:28 There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female; for 43ye all are one kind in Christ Jesus.
43So BC 1739 81 and most lesser Gk. mss, arm. p46A alone read ye all are of Christ Jesus. 33 G vg read ye all are in one kind in Christ Jesus. ℵ* alone reads ye all are in Christ Jesus.
3:29 And if ye are Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, heirs according to the promise covenant.
[Gal 4]
4:1 But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he differeth nothing from a bondservant though he is lord of all:
4:2 but is under guardians and stewards until the day appointed of the father.
4:3 So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under the 44rudiments of the world:
44Or, elements (and in vs. 9) As in 2Pt 3:10, 12.
4:4 but when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law covenant,
4:5 that he might redeem them that were under the law covenant, that we might receive the 45placement as sons.
45Lit. placing as sons, whether by adoption, or by the promotion suggested in vs. 2 (Cf. Dt 21:16). Compare Ro 8:15, 23, 9:4; Ep 1:5.
4:6 And because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of his Son into 46our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.
46So p46ℵBCA 1739 copsa arm vg. 33 81 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss. read your
4:7 So that thou art no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.
4:8 Howbeit at that time, not knowing God, ye were in bondage to them that by nature are no gods:
4:9 but now that ye have come to know God, how turn ye back again to the weak and beggarly rudiments, whereunto ye desire to be in bondage over again?
4:10 Ye observe days, and months, and seasons, and years.
4:11 I am afraid of you, lest by any means I have bestowed labor upon you in vain.
4:12 I beseech you, brethren, become as I am, for I also am become as ye are. Ye did me no wrong:
4:13 but ye know that because of an infirmity of the flesh I 47preached the gospel unto you the 48first time:
47Or, preached good news unto See marginal note on Mt 4:23.
48Gk. former:
4:14 and that which was a 49trial to you in my flesh ye despised not, nor 50rejected; but ye received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.
49So ℵ*BA 33 (1739) copbo vg. 81 arm read trial which in C*vid 1175 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., copsa read trial to me which in p46 almost alone reads trial to me in
50Gk. spat out;
4:15 Where then is that gratulation 51of yourselves? for I bear you witness, that, if possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.
51Or, of yours?
4:16 So then am I become your enemy, 52by telling you a truth?
52Or, by dealing truly with you?
4:17 They zealously seek you in no good way; no, they desire to shut you out, that ye may seek them.
4:18 But it is good to be zealously sought in a good matter at all times, and not only when I am present with you.
4:19 My little children, of whom I am again in travail until Christ be formed in you –
4:20 but I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my tone; for I am perplexed about you.
4:21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?
4:22 For it is written, that 53Abraham had two sons, one by the handmaid, and one by the freewoman.
53Ge 16:15.
4:23 54Howbeit the son by the handmaid is born after the flesh; but the son by the freewoman is born through the promise.
54Ge 21:2.
4:24 Which things contain an allegory: for these women 55are two covenants; one from mount Sinai, bearing children unto bondage, which is Hagar.
55Or, represent Similarly in verse 25.
4:25 56Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia and answereth to the Jerusalem that now is: for she is in bondage with her children.
56So BA 1175 {31 mss.}. 33 81 {545 mss.}, arm read For this Hagar is mount Sinai ℵC 1739 {15 mss.} vg read For this is mount Sinai p46 copsa almost alone read Now this is mount Sinai
4:26 But the Jerusalem that is above is free, which is 57our mother.
57So p46ℵ*BC* 1739 33 copsa,bo vg. A 81 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., arm read the mother of us all.
4:27 For it is written, 58Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; Break forth and cry, thou that travailest not: For more are the children of the desolate than of her that hath the husband.
58Is 54:1.
4:28 Now 59ye, brethren, as Isaac was, are children of the promise covenant.
59So p46B 1739 33 1175 copsa. But ℵCA 81 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., copbo arm vg read we
4:29 But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, so also is it now.
4:30 Howbeit what saith the scripture? 60Cast out the handmaid and her son: for the son of the handmaid shall not inherit with the son of the freewoman.
60Ge 21:10, 12.
4:31 Wherefore, brethren, we are not children of a handmaid, but of the freewoman.
[Gal 5]
5:1 For freedom did Christ set us free: stand fast therefore, and be not entangled again in a yoke of bondage.
5:2 Behold, I Paul say unto you, that, if ye receive circumcision, Christ will profit you nothing.
5:3 Yes, I testify again to every man that receiveth circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.
5:4 Ye are 61severed from Christ, ye who would be justified by the law; ye are fallen away from grace.
61Gk. brought to nought Compare Ro 7:2, 6 (in Gk.)
5:5 For we through the Spirit by faith wait for the hope of righteousness.
5:6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision; but faith 62working through love.
62Or, wrought
5:7 Ye were running well; who hindered you that ye should not obey the truth?
5:8 This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you.
5:9 A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.
5:10 I have confidence towards you in the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his condemnation, whosoever he be.
5:11 But I, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? then hath the stumbling-block of the cross been done away.
5:12 I would that they that unsettle you would even 63go beyond circumcision.
63Lit., chop off their private parts.
5:13 For ye, brethren, were called for freedom; only use not your freedom for an occasion to the flesh, but through love be servants one to another.
5:14 For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, even in this: 64Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.
64Lv 19:18.
5:15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.
5:16 But I say, Walk by the spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.
5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; for these are contrary the one to the other; that ye may not do the things that ye would.
5:18 But if ye are led by the spirit, ye are not under the law.
5:19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
5:20 idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousies, wraths, factions, divisions, 65parties,
65Gk. heresies, See footnote on 1Co 11:19.
5:21 envyings,66 drunkenness, revellings, and such like; of which I 67forewarn you, even as I did forewarn you, that they who practise such things shall not inherit a kingdom of God.
66So p46ℵB 33 81 copsa. But CA 1175 and most lesser Gk. mss., copbo arm vg add murders,
67Or, tell you plainly (both times)
5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
5:23 meekness, self-control; against such there is no law.
5:24 And they that are of Christ 68Jesus have crucified the flesh with the passions and the lusts thereof.
68So BCA 1739 33 copsa,bo. p46 81 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., arm vg omit Jesus
5:25 If we live by the Spirit, by the Spirit let us also walk.
5:26 Let us not become vainglorious, 69provoking one another, envying one another.
69Or, challenging
[Gal 6]
6:1 Brethren, even if a man be overtaken 70in any trespass, ye who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking to thyself, lest thou also be tempted.
70Or, by
6:2 Bear ye one another’s burdens, and so 71fulfil ye the law of Christ.
71So ℵCA 1739 33 81 1175 and most Gk. mss., arm. B G copsa,bo vg read ye fulfil p46alone reads ye satisfy
6:3 For if a man thinketh himself to be something when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.
6:4 But let each man prove his own work, and then shall he have his glorying in regard of himself alone, and not of 72his neighbor.
72Gk. the other. See Ro 13:8.
6:5 For each man shall bear his own 73burden.
73Or, load.
6:6 But let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.
6:7 Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.
6:8 For he that soweth unto his own flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth unto the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap eternal life.
6:9 And let us not be weary in well-doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.
6:10 So then, 74as we have opportunity, let us work that which is good toward all men, and especially toward them that are of the household of the faith.
74Or, while we have season,
6:11 See with how large letters I 75write unto you with mine own hand.
75Or, have written
6:12 As many as desire to make a fair show in the flesh, they compel you to be circumcised; only that they may not be persecuted 76for the cross of Christ.
76Or, by reason of
6:13 For not even they who 77receive circumcision do themselves keep the law; but they desire to have you circumcised that they may glory in your flesh.
77So ℵCA 1739 33 81 vg. p46B copbo read have received
6:14 But be it far from me to glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through 78which the world hath been crucified unto me, and I unto the world.
78Or, whom
6:15 79For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation is something.
79So p46B 1739* 33. But ℵCA 81 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., cop bo,fay vg read For in Christ Jesus neither (Compare ch. 5:6.)
6:16 And as many as shall walk by this rule, peace be upon them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God.
6:17 Henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear branded on my body the marks of Jesus.
6:18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen.