1Or, Jacob,1:2 Count it all joy, my brethren, when ye fall into manifold 4temptations;
3Gk. wisheth joy.
4Or, trials;1:3 knowing that the proving of your faith worketh 5patience.
5Or, stedfastness And in vs. 4.1:4 And let patience have its perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, lacking in nothing.
1:5 But if any of you lacketh wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth to all liberally and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.
1:6 But let him ask in faith, nothing doubting: for he that doubteth is like the surge of the sea driven by the wind and tossed.
1:7 For let not that man think 6that he shall receive anything of the Lord;
6Or, that a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways, shall receive anything of the Lord.1:8 a 7doubleminded man, unstable in all his ways.
7Gk. two-souled man,1:9 But let the brother of low degree glory in his high estate:
1:10 and the rich, in that he is made low: because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away.
1:11 For the sun ariseth with the scorching wind, and withereth the grass; and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his goings.
1:12 Blessed is the man that endureth temptation; for when he hath been approved, he shall receive the crown of life, 8which the Lord promised to them that love him.
8Lit. which he promised So p23BAℵ ψ 2344 and 4 lesser Gk. mss., cop. 1739 1852 1241 1243 33vid 322 and 12 lesser Gk. mss., vg read which God promised (C) and 472 lesser Gk. mss. read which the Lord promised1:13 Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted 9of God; for God 10cannot be tempted with evil things, and he himself tempteth no man:
9Gk. from1:14 but each man is 11tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed.
10Or, is untried in evil,
11Or, tempted by his own lust, being drawn away by it, and enticed.1:15 Then the lust, when it hath conceived, beareth sin: and the sin, when it is fullgrown, bringeth forth death.
1:16 Be not deceived, my beloved brethren.
1:17 Every good 12gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be 13no variation, neither shadow that is cast by turning.
12Or, giving1:18 Of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruit of his creatures.
13I.e., no flickering (in time), no asymmetry (in space).
1:19 14Ye know this, my beloved brethren. But let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath:
14Or, Know ye this,1:20 for the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God.
1:21 Wherefore putting away all filthiness and overflowing of 15wickedness, receive with meekness the 16implanted word, which is able to save your souls.
15Or, malice,1:22 But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deluding your own selves.
1:23 For if any one is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding 17his natural face in a mirror:
17Gk. the face of his birth1:24 for he beholdeth himself, and goeth away, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was.
1:25 But he that looketh into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and so continueth, becoming not a hearer that forgetteth but a doer that worketh, this man shall be blessed in his doing.
1:26 If any one 18thinketh himself to be religious, while he bridleth not his tongue but deceiveth his heart, this man’s religion is vain.
18Or, seemeth to be1:27 Pure religion and undefiled before our God and Father is this, to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world.
2:1 My brethren, 19hold not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons.
19Or, do ye, in accepting persons, hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of the glory?2:2 For if there come into your 20synagogue a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, and there come in also a poor man in vile clothing;
20Or, assembly Compare Hb 10:25 (in Greek).2:3 and ye have regard to him that weareth the fine clothing, and say, Sit thou here in a good place; and ye say to the poor man, Stand thou there, or sit under my footstool;
2:4 21do ye not make distinctions 22among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts?
21Or, are ye not divided2:5 Hearken, my beloved brethren; did not God choose them that are poor as to the world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to them that love him?
22Or, in your own mind,
2:6 But ye have dishonored the poor man. Do not the rich oppress you, and themselves drag you before the judgment-seats?
2:7 Do not they blaspheme the honorable name 23by which ye are called?
23Gk. which was called upon you? See Ac 15:17.2:8 Howbeit if ye fulfil the royal law, according to the scripture, 24Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, ye do well:
24Lv 19:18.2:9 but if ye have respect of persons, ye commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors.
2:10 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he is become guilty of all.
2:11 For he that said, 25Do not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou dost not commit adultery, but killest, thou art become a transgressor of the law.
25Ex 20:13f.; Dt 5:17f.2:12 So speak ye, and so do, as men that are to be judged by a law of liberty.
2:13 For judgment is without mercy to him that hath showed no mercy: mercy glorieth against judgment.
2:14 What is the profit, my brethren, if a man say he hath faith, but have not works? can that faith save him?
2:15 If a brother or sister be naked and in lack of daily food,
2:16 and one of you say unto them, Go in peace, be ye warmed and filled; and yet ye give them not the things needful to the body; what is the profit?
2:17 Even so faith, if it have not works, is dead in itself.
2:18 26Yes, a man will say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: show me thy faith apart from thy works, and I by my works will show thee my faith.
26Or, But some one will say,2:19 Thou believest that 27God is one; thou doest well: the demons also believe, and shudder.
27So p74Aℵ (1739 1241) ((322 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss.)) cop vg arm. But B 1852 (C 1243 2344 33vid) and 23 others read there is one God; ψ almost alone reads God is;2:20 But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith apart from works is 28barren?
28So BC* 1739 1243 322 copsa vg. Aℵψ 1852 1241 2344 33 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., copbo read dead? p74 virtually alone reads empty?2:21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son upon the altar?
2:22 29Thou seest that faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect;
29Or, Seest thou ... perfect?2:23 and the scripture was fulfilled which saith, And 30Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness; and he was called 31the friend of God.
30Ge 15:6.2:24 Ye see that by works a man is justified, and not only by faith.
31Is 41:8; 2Chr 20:7.
2:25 And in like manner was not also Rahab the harlot justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way:
2:26 For as the body apart from the 32breath is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead.
32Or, spirit or, wind (Gk. pneuma, from which the English pneumatic implies wind force.)[Jas 3]
3:1 Be not many of you teachers, my brethren, knowing that we shall receive greater condemnation.
3:2 For in many things we all stumble. If any stumbleth not in word, the same is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body also.
3:3 Now if we put the horses’ bridles into their mouths that they may obey us, we turn about their whole body also.
3:4 Behold, the ships also, though they are so great and are driven by rough winds, are yet turned about by a very small rudder, whither the impulse of the steersman willeth.
3:5 So the tongue also is a little member and boasteth great things. Behold, 33how much wood is kindled by how small a fire!
33Or, how great a forest3:6 And the tongue is 34a fire: the world of iniquity among our members is the tongue, which defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the wheel of 35nature, and is set on fire by 36Gehenna.
34Or, a fire, that world of iniquity: the tongue is among our members that which etc. or, a fire: that world of iniquity, the tongue, is among our members that which etc.3:7 For every 37kind of beasts and birds, of creeping things and things in the sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed 38by 39mankind:
36That is, the lake of fire, Jerusalem’s refuse dump.
37Gk. nature3:8 but the tongue can no one tame; it is a restless evil, it is full of deadly poison.
39Gk. the human nature:
3:9 Therewith bless we 40the Lord and Father; and therewith curse we men, who have become after the likeness of God:
40So p20BAℵCψ 1739 1852 1241 33 arm. 1243 2344 322 and a majority of lesser Gk. mss., copsa,ach read God, even the Father;3:10 out of the same mouth cometh forth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be.
3:11 Doth the fountain send forth from the same opening sweet water and bitter?
3:12 Can a fig tree, my brethren, yield olives, or a vine figs? neither can salt water yield sweet water.
3:13 Who is wise and understanding among you? let him show by his good life his works in meekness of wisdom.
3:14 But if ye have bitter jealousy and faction in your heart, glory not and lie not against the truth.
3:15 This wisdom is not a wisdom that cometh down from above, but is earthly, 41sensual, 42devilish.
41Or, natural, or, animal, (Lit. of the soul)3:16 For where jealousy and faction are, there is confusion, and every vile deed.
3:17 But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, after that peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without 43doubtfulness, without hypocrisy.
43Or, variance, or, partiality,3:18 And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace 44for them that make peace.
44Or, by[Jas 4]
4:1 Whence come wars and whence come fightings among you? come they not hence, even of your pleasures that war in your members?
4:2 Ye lust, and have not: ye kill and 45covet, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war; ye have not, because ye ask not.
45Gk. are jealous,4:3 Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask 46amiss, that ye may spend it in your pleasures.
46Gk. ill, (κακως, kakōs, as in cognate: caco·phony, bad sound, dissonance)4:4 Ye 47adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? Whosoever therefore would be a friend of the world maketh himself an enemy of God.
47That is, who break your marriage vow to Christ, So p100 BAℵ 1739 1852 1241 33 cop vg. ψ 1243 2344 323 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., read adulterers and adulteresses,4:5 Or think ye that the scripture 48speaketh in vain? 49Doth the spirit which 50he made to dwell in us long unto envying?
48Or, saith in vain:4:6 But he giveth 51more grace. Wherefore the scripture saith, 52God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.
49Or, The Spirit which he made to dwell in us, it yearneth for even unto jealous envy. Cf. Jer 3:14; Hos 2:19f. Or, That Spirit which he made to dwell in us yearneth for us even unto jealous envy.
50So p74Bℵψ 1739 1241 (A 81). 1852 1243 2344 33 322 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., vg arm read dwelt in us
51Gk. a greater grace.4:7 Be subject therefore unto God; but resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
4:8 Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye 53doubleminded.
53Gk. two-souled men.4:9 Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness.
4:10 Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he shall exalt you.
4:11 Speak not one against another, brethren. He that speaketh against a brother, or judgeth his brother, speaketh against the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou judgest the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge.
4:12 One only is the lawgiver and judge, even he who is able to save and to destroy: but who art thou that judgest thy neighbor?
4:13 Come now, ye that say, Today or tomorrow we will go into this city, and spend a year there, and trade, and get gain:
4:14 whereas 54ye know not what shall be on the morrow. What indeed is your life? 55For ye are a vapor that appeareth for a little time, and afterwards disappeareth.
54B almost alone reads ye know not what your life shall be on the morrow.4:15 56For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall both live, and do this or that.
55So 1852 1243 81. B 1739 322 read For ye are a vapor that appeareth (A omits For) ψ and many lesser Gk. mss. read For ye shall be a vapor that appeareth (33 2344 copsa,bo vg) and many lesser Gk. mss. read For it is a vapor that appeareth ℵ alone reads which appeareth
56Gk. Instead of your saying,4:16 But now ye glory in your vauntings: all such glorying is evil.
4:17 To him therefore that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.
5:1 Come now, ye rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming upon you.
5:2 Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten.
5:3 Your gold and your silver are rusted; and their rust shall be for a testimony 57against you, and shall eat your flesh as fire. Ye have laid up your treasure in the last days.
57Or, unto you,5:4 Behold, the hire of the laborers who mowed your fields, which is of you 58kept back by fraud, crieth out: and the cries of them that reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of 59Hosts.
58B*ℵ read withheld, or, kept in arrear,5:5 Ye have lived delicately on the earth, and taken your pleasure; ye have nourished your hearts in a day of slaughter.
59Gk. Sabaoth. Hb. word meaning hosts.
5:6 Ye have condemned, ye have killed the righteous one; he doth not resist you.
5:7 Be patient therefore, brethren, until the presence of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until 60it receive 61the early and latter rain.
60Or, he5:8 Be ye also patient; establish your hearts: for the presence of the Lord has drawn near.
61So p74B 1739 1241 048 copsa vg arm. Aψ 1852 1243 2344 33 322 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss. read the early and latter rain. ℵ* with only four lesser mss., (copbo) read the early and latter fruit.
5:9 Murmur not, brethren, one against another, that ye be not judged: behold, the judge standeth before the doors.
5:10 Take, brethren, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spake in the name of the Lord.
5:11 Behold, we call them blessed that endured: ye have heard of the 62patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord, how that the Lord is full of pity, and merciful.
62Or, endurance or, stedfastness5:12 But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by the heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath: but 63let your Yes mean yes, and your No mean no; that ye fall not under judgment.
63Or, let yours be the yes, yes, and the no, no; Compare Mt 5:37.5:13 Is any among you suffering? let him pray. Is any cheerful? let him sing praise.
5:14 Is any among you weak? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, having anointed him with oil in the name 64of the Lord:
64B alone omits of the Lord5:15 and the prayer of faith shall save him that is sick, and the Lord shall 65raise him up; and if he have committed sins, it shall be forgiven him.
65Or, awaken him;5:16 Confess therefore 66your sins one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The supplication of a righteous man availeth much in its working.
66So BAℵψ 1739 1852 1241 1243 2344 33 048. 322 and 452 still lesser Gk. mss. read your faults copsa vg read your faults5:17 Elijah was a man of 67like passions with us, and he prayed 68fervently that it might not rain; and it rained not on the earth for three years and six months.
67Or possibly, like nature with us,5:18 And he prayed again; and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth her fruit.
68Gk. with prayer
5:19 My brethren, if any among you err from the truth, and one convert him;
5:20 69let him know, that he who converteth a sinner from the error of his way shall save 70his soul from death, and shall cover a multitude of sins.
69So Aℵ 1739 1852 1241 1243 2344 322 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., vg arm. B and a few others read know ye that p74 copsa omit let him know, that ψ virtually alone omits let him know,
70So Aℵ 1739 2344 33 048vid copbo vg arm. p74B with few others read a soul from his death, or, a soul from death itself, ψ 1852 1241 1243 and the majority of lesser Gk. mss., copsa read a soul from death,